Aviation in India, broadly divided into military and civil aviation, is the fastest-growing aviation market in the world according to the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The hub of the nation's aviation manufacturing industry is at Banglore which has a 65% share of this economic sector. The government's UDAN (regional connectivity scheme) is driving the growth of civil aviation and aviation infrastructure in India.
The man has always wanted to be able to fly. The dream or although it has achieved, has not been reached yet fully. The fuse of the flight today is much higher than in the past, but is not yet complete. Although they have carried out the steps in the increase of the safety of a ship in flight, there are still many steps to do. For our passengers, but also for our pilots, these brave people and beautiful, it's time to do something in addition, something more. All those who are to get into a ship must be confident that they will fly absolutely without any problems, regardless of the weather, time, climate, brightness, weather conditions, temperature, altitude.
In order to achieve a flight higher quality, it is first necessary to know the history of the flight of the man from its inception up today. The present paper wants to present history human flight, as she was in a vision as realistic as possible. The paper is addressed to in the first place to all those who contributed or still contribute to the achievement of this beautiful dream of the man, the flight. According to Aulus Gellius, Archytas philosopher of the old Greek, a mathematician, astronomers, law and political strategist, was considered that has designed and built around 400 B.C., first artificial device of the flight is self-propelled, a model in the form of bird propelled by an steam boost (an engine with the steamer) used as the reactor with steam, about whom they say he flew effectively to about 200 m altitude.
This machine, named by its inventor " The Dove " , could be suspended on a wire to fly securely on a path of feed. The inventor of the berbers from the ninth century, Abbas Ibn Firnas, is considered by John Harding to be the first attempt of the flight heavier than air in the history of aviation. In 1010 AD, a British (English) monk, Eilmer of Malmesbury, assumed the piloting of a primitive sliding boat from the Malmesbury Abbey tower. It is said that Eilmer flew over 200 m (180 m) before landing and breaking his legs. He later remarked that the only reason he did not fly further was that he forgot to design his flight instrument and a queue, for which he redesigned his aircraft more technically, but his ancestor took Forbidden any other experiments on the grounds that they are bad (Satanic inspiration) and lead to serious accidents.
History of aviation:
The first commercial aviation flight in India took place on 18 February 1911. It was a brief demonstration flight of about 15 minutes from the United Provinces Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition in Allahabad, across the Jumna River to Naini, a distance of 9.7 kilometres (6 mi). The aircraft, a Humber biplane shipped from England specifically for the event, was flown by French aviator Henri HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Pequet"Pequet and carried 6,500 pieces of mail, making it the first official airmail service. Regular air mail was not established until two decades later, notably by J. R. D. Tata, who was awarded a contract to carry mail in 1932 and founded an airline which grew to become Air India.
According to Aulus Gellius, Archytas philosopher of the old Greek, a mathematician, astronomers, law and political strategist, was considered that has designed and built around 400 B.C., first artificial device of the flight is self-propelled, a model in the form of bird propelled by an steam boost (an engine with the steamer) used as the reactor with steam, about whom they say he flew effectively to about 200 m altitude. This machine, named by its inventor “The Dove”, could be suspended on a wire to fly securely on a path of feed.
The inventor of the berbers from the ninth century, Abbas Ibn Firnas, is considered by John Harding to be the first attempt of the flight heavier than air in the history of aviation.
In 1010 AD, a British (English) monk, Eilmer of Malmesbury, assumed the piloting of a primitive sliding boat from the Malmesbury Abbey tower. It is
said that Eilmer flew over 200 m (180 m) before landing and breaking his legs. He later remarked that the only reason he did not fly further was that he forgot to design his flight instrument and a queue, for which he redesigned his aircraft more technically, but his ancestor took Forbidden any other experiments on the grounds that they are bad (Satanic inspiration) and lead to serious accidents.
Bartholomew of Gusmão, Brazilian and Portuguese, was an experienced model aircraft engineer. In 1709 he demonstrated an aircraft model in front of the Portuguese court, but never managed to build a large-scale model. The pilgrims of Rozier, Paris, France, made the first voyage of a man in a free balloon (Montgolfière), built by Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier, covering a 9 km flight in only 25 min October 15, 1783.
On December 1, 1783 at Charlieère, the pilots of Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert made the first flight conducted with the help of a hydrogen balloon. On September 19, 1784, at Caroline, an elongated boat (specially arranged after Jean Baptiste Meusnier's proposals in the form of a dirigible balloon), he completed the first flight of more than 100 km, from Paris to Beuvry.
The history of aviation can be divided into six periods. The epoch of the precursors: Until the beginning of the seventeenth century men imagined-more or less realistically-what a flying machine could be. Then from the end of the eighteenth century, this period saw the beginning of the conquest of the air with the development of aerostation and numerous attempts of gliding.
The pioneers of the heaviest air: It is the period of the first flights of motor vehicles capable of taking off on their own. Almost every flight is a first or record attempt: A little faster, a little farther, a little higher. Aviators are most often designers or adventurers. The First World War: Only a few years after the first flight, this period saw the emergence of a new weapon on the battlefield. There is an abrupt shift to mass production, with some aircraft models even being built to more than a thousand; the pilots become "professionals", even if the perfume of adventure has not completely disappeared.
The end of the First World War put on the market a surplus of pilots and aircraft which enabled the launch of commercial air transport and, in the first place, that of mail. Aviation develops and there is the creation of an air force in many countries. Military aviation drives builders to break new records. Advances in civil aviation are a spin-off from military studies (Petrescu and Petrescu, 2011; 2012; 2013a; 2013b; 2013c; Aversa et al., 2016a; 2016b; 2016c; 2016d; 2016e; 2016f).
The Second World War: Aviation is widely used on the battlefield. This period can be considered the climax of planes using a piston engine and a propeller as a propulsion means. The end of the war saw the birth of the jet engine and the radar. The second half of the twentieth century: Once again, the end of the war put on the market a surplus of aircraft and pilots. This is the beginning of the regular commercial air transport "all-weather" able to free itself from weather conditions and to practice the flight without visibility. Military aeronautics drives the development of the reactor, this is called the era of the jet and then sets out to conquer the supersonic flight.
Civilian spin-offs allow the development of the first four-jet airliners and air transport is open to all, at least in developed countries (Crickmore, 1997; Donald, 2003; Goodall, 2003; Graham, 2002; Jenkins, 2001; Landis and Jenkins, 2005). The Wright Flyer (1903) is widely regarded as the first aircraft capable of performing a controlled and controlled flight. The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I or 1903 Flyer) was the first successful heavier-than-air powered aircraft. It was designed and built by the Wright brothers. They flew it four times on December 17, 1903, near Kill Devil Hills, about four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, US. Today, the airplane is exhibited in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C. (Wright Flyer, From Wikipedia).
The Flyer was based on the Wrights' experience testing gliders at Kitty Hawk between 1900 and 1902. Their last glider, the 1902 Glider, led directly to the design of the Flyer. The Wrights built the aircraft in 1903 using giant spruce wood as their construction material. Wings were designed with a 1-in-20 camber. Since they could not find a suitable automobile engine for the task, they commissioned their employee Charlie Taylor to build a new design from scratch, effectively a crude gasoline engine SNASM (1899). A sprocket chain drive, borrowing from bicycle technology, powered the twin propellers, which were also made by hand.
The Flyer was a canard biplane configuration. As with the gliders, the pilot flew lying on his stomach on the lower wing with his head toward the front of the craft in an effort to reduce drag. He steered by moving a cradle attached to his hips. The cradle pulled wires which warped the wings and turned the rudder simultaneously.
The Flyer's "runway" was a track of 2x4s stood on their narrow edge, which the brothers nicknamed the "Junction Railroad". The engine Wright was a little gross, even after the standards of the day. It had four cylinders in horizontal line. Bore of 4 inches, travel of 4 inches, cast iron cylinders match in a cylinder of die-cast aluminum which extends toward the outside to form a mantle of water around the receptables the cylinder(SNASM, 1899).
The engine was cooled by water from a narrow vertical water reservoir mounted on a forward strut. The system was not a radiator in the typical sense, for the water did not circulate. The reservoir simply replenished the water jacket as the water evaporated from it. The Wright engine, with its aluminum crankcase, marked the first time this breakthrough material was used in aircraft construction. Lightweight aluminum became essential in aircraft design development and remains a primary construction material for all types of aircraft.
The engine had no fuel pump, carburetor, or spark plugs. Nor did it have a throttle. Yet the simple motor produced 12 horsepower, an acceptable margin above the Wrights’ minimum requirement of 8 horsepower. Gasoline was gravity fed from a small quart-and-ahalf tank mounted on a strut below the upper wing. The gasoline entered a shallow chamber next to the cylinders and mixed with the incoming air. Heat from the crankcase vaporized the fuel-air mixture, causing it to pass through the intake manifold into the cylinders (Petrescu and Petrescu, 2011; 2012; 2013a; 2013b; 2013c).
Ignition was produced by opening and closing two contact breaker points in the combustion chamber of each cylinder via a camshaft. The initial spark for starting the engine was generated with a coil and four dry-cell batteries, not carried on the airplane. A low tension magneto driven by a 20-pound flywheel supplied electric current while the engine was running.
Materials and Methods; the Preecursors
The man probably dreamed of imitating the flight of the birds and the legend, such as that of Icarus, or many apocryphal tales claiming attempts of flight by men harnessed with wings and rushing from a man, a tower. Whatever their identity, they tried to imitate a mechanism, that of the bird's wing, whose complexity they did not imagine. The Egyptians already make toys or models of balsa wood with the ability to climb and hover in the air. Archytas of Taranto is credited with inventing a wooden dove capable of flying. Around 1500,
Leonardo da Vinci drew and proposed several ideas of "flying machines", but they were based, for the most part, on the concept of swinging wings (Fig. 3), (LDVFM, 2008).
In 1655, Robert Hooke, an English mathematician, physicist and inventor, concluded that human flight was impossible without the assistance of an "artificial" engine (Robert Hooke, From Wikipedia). In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers thanks to the hot air balloon and Jacques Charles thanks to the gas balloon allow the man to rise in the atmosphere but without control of the trajectory. The solution will come from the study of a toy, the kite, known in the East since antiquity but which will not be introduced in Europe until the thirteenth century (Montgolfier Brothers, From Wikipedia).
Modern aeroplane design is based on thosediscoveries and on the importance of cambered wings, also identified by Cayley. He constructed the first flying model aeroplane and also diagrammed the elements of vertical flight. He designed the first glider reliably reported to carry a human aloft. He correctly predicted that sustained flight would not occur until a lightweight engine was developed to provide adequate thrust and lift. The Wright brothers acknowledged his importance to the development of aviation. William Samuel Henson and John String fellow, taking over Cayley's work, have a model of a steam airplane flying. Nevertheless, powerful engines for real-size aircraft are far too heavy to allow them to take off.
The First Motorized Takeoff
The first man to say he flew with an engine is Frenchman Clément Ader, in command of his aircraft. The reality of these flights is discussed, due to the lack of witnesses and the lack of control of its craft. The first attempt took place in 1890 at the command of the Éole; the marks left by the wheels in the loose soil would have presented a place where they were less marked and would have totally disappeared about twenty or fifty m. His flying craft would thus have jumped. There were no witnesses other than Ader's employees and the same machine, tried before official witnesses in 1891, gives no other results (Ader Clément, From Wikipedia). The following tests of Ader were carried out at the military camp at Satory, at Versailles, where a circular area of 450 m in diameter had been established for an official demonstration. On October 12, 1897, Ader made a first round on this circuit aboard his Aircraft III.
He felt several times the apparatus leave the ground, then resume contact. Two days later, when the wind was strong, Clement Ader launched his machine before two officials from the War Department who said: "It was easy to see, from the wake of the wheels, that the aircraft had been frequently raised from the rear and that the rear wheel forming the rudder had not been constantly carried on the ground. The two members of the committee saw him suddenly emerge from the track, describe a half conversion, bow to the side and finally remain motionless (it seems that the wheels no longer have enough grip due to the sustentation, the pilot lost directional control of his machine which then came out of the runway and then reversed under the effect of the wind).
The First Controlled Motorized Flight
After the gliders had developed their gliders between 1900 and 1903, with more than 700 flights in 1902, the Wright brothers experimented with their first plane, the Flyer, in the dunes of Kitty Hawk on December 17, 1903. The two brothers fly in their turn; they make four flights, the last being the longest: Orville flies on 284 m for 59 sec. These flights are generally considered the first motorized and controlled flights of a heavier than air. Their critics, especially the supporters of Alberto Santos-Dumont and Gabriel Voisin, blame them for having needed a rail fixed to the ground and a catapult against weight for take-off, the Flyer being devoid of wheels; the low power of the engine also did not allow take-off in low wind. The inventors' desire to protect their invention from the 1905 flight of the Flyer III, the absence of public demonstrations and the low number of witnesses of their flights played a negative role in their publicity. Wright's mastery of the flight technique was later recognized during the various demonstrations that the Wright made in France, notably at Auvours in the Sarthe in 1908.
Historical research reveals that the first motorized flight was carried out by German American engineer Gustav Weißkopf (or Gustave Whitehead) in 1899. The American journalist Stella Randolph published a book on this engineer in 1930: Before the Wrights flew (Before the Wrigths fly) and his work is being confirmed by the historian of aeronautics John Brown.
The First Controlled Autonomous Motorized Flights
Traian Vuia flew to Montesson on 18 March 1906 with a heavier-than air-self-propelled airplane (no launch mechanism) over a distance of about 12 m at an altitude of one m . This flight ended in an accident, Vuia resumed its tests that from the month of July after having repaired and modified its apparatus. On 19 August 1906 he flew a distance of 25 m at an altitude of 2.5 m at Issy-les- Moulineaux (Vuia Traian, From Wikipedia). Traian Vuia (August 17, 1872-September 3, 1950) was a Romanian inventor and aviation pioneer who designed, built and tested a tractor configuration monoplane. He was the first to demonstrate that a flying apparatus could rise into the air by running upon wheels on an ordinary road. He is credited with a powered hop of 11 m (36 feet) made on March 18, 1906 and he later claimed a powered hop of 24 m (79 feet). Though unsuccessful in sustained flight, Vuia's invention influenced Louis Blériot in designing monoplanes. Later, Vuia also designed helicopters.
By December 1905 Vuia had finished construction of his first airplane, the "Vuia I". This was a highwing monoplane constructed entirely of steel tubing. The basic framework consisted of a pair of triangular frames, the lower members forming the sides of the rectangular chassis which bore four pneumatic-tyred wheels, the front pair steerable. The wing was mounted on the apices of these frames and resembled those of Otto Lilienthal's gliders, with a number of curved steel tubes radiating outwards from centres at the apex of each of the side frames, braced by wires attached to a pair of kingposts and covered in varnished linen. Pitch control was achieved by varying the angle of attack of the wing. A trapezoidal rudder was mounted behind and below the wing. It was powered by a carbonic acid gas engine driving a single tractor propeller.
The 25 hp engine had to be adapted by Vuia himself as a suitable engine was not available. Liquid carbon dioxide was vaporized in a Serpollet boiler and fed to a Serpollet engine. The fuel supply was enough for a running time of about five minutes at full power. The aircraft was constructed for Vuia by the Parisian engineering company of Hockenjos and Schmitt. Vuia chose a site in Montesson, near Paris, for testing. At first he used the machine without the wings mounted so he could gather experience controlling it on the ground. The wings were put on in March and on March 18, 1906, it lifted off briefly. After accelerating for about 50 m (160 ft), the aircraft left the ground and travelled through the air at a height of about 1 m (3 ft 3 in) for a distance of about 12 m (39 ft), but then the engine cut out and it came down.
Caught by the wind it was damaged against a tree. On August 9 a longer hop of 24 m (79 ft) at a height of about 2.5 m (8 ft) was made, ending in a heavy landing which damaged the propeller. In 1907 Vuia built the Vuia II, using an Antoinette 25 horsepower (19 kilowatts) internal combustion engine. This aircraft had the same basic configuration as the Vuia I-bis, but was both smaller and lighter, with a total weight (including pilot) of 210 kg (460 l b) and a wingspan of 7.9 m (26 ft). Vuia succeeded in making a brief powered hop on July 5, travelling 20 m (66 ft), but damaging the aircraft and suffering slight injuries on landing (Fig. 10). Between 1918 and 1921 Vuia built two experimental helicopters on the Juvisy and Issy-les-Moulineaux aerodromes.
On October 30, 1908, Bouy aviation took off from Henri Farman at the wheel of his Voisin for the first inter-city flight. He reached Reims after a 17-min flight and traveled 27 km. On July 3, 1909, at the Brayelle Airfield near Douai, the first air show in the world took place, Louis Blériot with his monoplane flies 47 km in 1 h 7, Louis Paulhan with his biplane beats the record of height with 150 m (Blériot Louis, From Wikipedia).
Aviation Is a Major Contributor to Global Economic Prosperity
Aviation provides the only rapid worldwide transportation network, which makes it essential for global business. It generates economic growth, creates jobs, and facilitates international trade and tourism. According to recent estimates by the cross-industry Air Transport Action Group (ATAG), the total economic impact (direct, indirect, induced and tourism-connected) of the global aviation industry reached USD 2.7 trillion, some 3.6 per cent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 20164. The air transport industry also supported a total of 65.5 million jobs globally. It provided 10.2 million direct jobs. Airlines, air navigation service providers and airports directly employed around three and a half million people. The civil aerospace sector (the manufacture of aircraft, systems and engines) employed 1.2 million people. A further 5.6 million people worked in other on-airport positions. 55.3 million indirect, induced and tourism-related jobs were supported by aviation.
These estimates do not include other economic benefits of aviation, such as the jobs or economic activity that occur when companies or industries exist because air travel makes them possible. They also do not include the intrinsic value that the speed and connectivity of air travel provides, or domestic tourism and trade, as well as foreign direct investment simulated by good air transport connections, which is crucial to developing productive assets for economic growth in the long term. Including these would increase the employment and global economic impact numbers several-fold. One of the industries that relies most heavily on aviation is tourism. By facilitating tourism, air transport helps generate economic growth and alleviate poverty. Currently, approximately 1.4 billion tourists are crossing borders every year, over half of whom travelled to their destinations by air. In 2016, aviation supported almost 37 million jobs within the tourism sector, contributing roughly USD 897 billion a year to global GDP. Air transport is a driver of global trade and e-commerce, allowing globalization of production. The small volumes of air cargo amount to big values in world trade. In 2018, USD 6.8 trillion worth of goods were expected to be transported internationally by air, representing 35 per cent of world trade by value, despite representing less than 1 per cent by volume8 . Aviation’s advantage over other modes of transport in terms of speed and reliability has contributed to the market for “same-day” and “next-day” delivery services and transportation of urgent or time-sensitive goods. Around 90 per cent of business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce parcels are currently carried by air. The e-commerce share of scheduled international mail tonne kilometres (MTKs) grew from 16 per cent to 88 per cent between 2010 and 2018 and is estimated to grow to 96 per cent by 2025.
Aviation Provides Significant Social Benefits
The availability of reliable air transport services provides people with access to what they need: better living standards, food, healthcare, education, safe communities and spaces, etc. Aviation is by far the world’s safest and most efficient mode of long-range transportation. It often serves as the only possible means of transportation to provide health care and food supplies to many remote communities, and it is a fast and reliable way to deliver urgent humanitarian aid during emergencies caused by natural disasters, famine and war.
In remote or peripheral regions, air transport functions as an essential service to provide lifeline connections that otherwise would not be available. Furthermore, educational opportunities are made available to students around the world, especially for those students from developing countries who must travel abroad for higher quality education. Aviation contributes to improving quality of life by broadening travellers’ leisure and cultural experiences. It provides an affordable means to visit distant friends and relatives, and fosters awareness of other cultures.
Sustaining the Future of Aviation
Both air passenger traffic and air freight traffic are expected to more than double in the next two decades. By 2045, passenger traffic will reach over 22 trillion RPKs with a growth of 4.1 per cent per annum, and freight will expand by 3.6 per cent annually over the same time period, to 573 billion FTKs. This growth holds tremendous economic potential, which will support all States in achieving the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
In 2036, aviation will provide 98 million jobs and generate USD 5.7 trillion in GDP, a 110 per cent increase from 201611.12 The future growth of air transport will likely depend on sustainable world economic and trade growth, as well as declining airline costs and ticket prices. Other factors, including regulatory regimes (such as liberalization of air transport), technological improvements and fuel costs will also impact future growth.
Exponential Growth of Air Traffic
From a long-term historical perspective, air transport has doubled in size every fifteen years and has experienced greater growth than most other industries. Since 1960, increasing demand for passenger and freight services, technological progress and associated investment have combined to multiply the output of the aviation industry by a factor of more than 30. This expansion of air transport compares favourably with the broadest available measure of world output (global GDP), which, when measured in real terms, has multiplied by more than five times over the same period. It is no mystery why air traffic growth has so consistently defied recessionary cycles.
The air transport sector resisted these recessions precisely because it served as one of the most effective tools for ending them an important consideration for governments at every level in a challenging economic environment. In 2018, airlines worldwide carried around 4.3 billion passengers annually, logging 8.3 trillion revenue passengerkilometres (RPKs). Fifty-eight million tonnes of freight were transported by air, reaching 231 billion freight tonnekilometres (FTKs). Every day, aviation moves almost 12 million passengers and around USD 18 billion worth of goods on more than 100,000 flights.
Asia/Pacific remained the largest region of activity with 35 per cent of world traffic measured in revenue tonne-kilometres (RTKs), followed by Europe and North America with 26 per cent and 22 per cent, respectively. Airlines in the Middle East managed 10 per cent of world traffic. The Latin America and Caribbean region accounted for 5 per cent, while the remaining 2 per cent of world traffic was undertaken by African airlines.
Air Travel Affordability
A key driver in the growth of passenger traffic has been the steady decrease in the real cost of air travel a reduction of over 70 per cent since 1970. This decrease in cost has led to an increase in accessibility of air travel democratization (from a pursuit reserved for the wealthy to a part of normal middle-class lives). Air travel is no longer a luxury commodity. It is becoming increasingly accessible in the developing world, with various low-cost travel options available to more and more people.
The aviation industry has undergone a structural transformation and has adjusted to a dynamic marketplace by consolidating and expanding in new markets. The evolution of low-cost carriers (LCCs), particularly since the beginning of the 21st century, is notable in emerging economies, making air travel more affordable. In 2018, LCCs carried an estimated 1.3 billion passengers, which was approximately 31 per cent of the world total scheduled passengers. This indicated an 8.7 per cent growth when compared to the number of passengers carried by LCCs in 2017, around 1.4 times the rate of the world total average passenger growth.
The air transport network is dynamic and constantly developing. It is composed of over 1,303 scheduled airlines, over 31,717 aircraft in service, 3,759 airports and 170 air navigation services providers. It is truly a global industry connecting all parts of the world seamlessly. Aviation is a customer-focused economic sector. While there is no single definition of air connectivity, it can be viewed as the ability of a network to move passengers, cargo and mail involving the minimum of transit points, which makes the trip as short as possible with optimal user satisfaction at the minimum price possible. There is increasing evidence that air connectivity growth stimulates productivity, research and development (R&D), foreign direct investment and fosters trade specialization.
Many States have come to understand that air connectivity is an asset, improving the global competitiveness of cities, regions and countries. They try to include aviation projects as a priority in their development strategies and formulate policies.
The Aviation Satellite
Account Notwithstanding the socio-economic benefits brought by aviation, its importance to national economies appears not to be fully understood by States and the public due mainly to the acute shortage of reliable economic information related to aviation. While some research and analysis has been conducted to estimate the economic contribution of aviation, there has been no internationally-agreed standard to measure it. Consequently, the credibility, reliability, robustness and accuracy of such estimations are often questioned and challenged.
ICAO developed a methodological framework for the “Aviation Satellite Account” (ASA) to measure the direct economic impact of aviation on the national economy in line with the System of National Accounts (SNA 2008) adopted by the UN Statistical Commission – an internationally agreed statistical framework for a set of macroeconomic accounts. The term “satellite account” refers to an account that is closely linked to the SNA but is not bound to employ exactly the same concepts or restricted to data expressed in monetary terms. A satellite account covers a specific industry or sector of particular importance to the national economy. Many elements shown in a satellite account are invisible in the national accounts. Either they are explicitly estimated in the making of the national accounts but are merged for presentation in more aggregated figures, or they are only implicit components of transactions which are estimated on an aggregated basis.
Common examples are satellite accounts for tourism, transport, culture, sports, and environment. The ASA consists of a set of tables, including the Supply and Use Tables (SUTs) which are prepared to estimate aviation’s direct GVA and aviation direct GDP, etc. These tables describe: a) how products (goods and services) are brought into the national economy either as a result of domestic production or imports from other countries; and b) how those same products are used (as intermediate consumption, household final consumption, non-profit institutions serving households, general government final consumption, gross capital formation and exports). Other tables in the ASA cover additional elements, both monetary and non-monetary, such as data on employment and indicators of output. States can use the ASA to improve understanding and raise awareness of aviation’s importance relative to an overall economic activity, as well as to highlight the inter-dependencies of aviation with other economic sectors that are involved in the production of goods and services consumed by aviation.uence and enhance connectivity outcomes, so as to achieve a connectivity portfolio that best meets society’s needs.
The air was sucked in at the front by a compressor and then directed to a combustion chamber (one on each side, at the front of the aircraft) which provided the thrust. The compressor was driven by a conventional piston engine and not by a turbine as in modern reactors (Coandă-1910, From Wikipedia). The Coandă-1910, designed by Romanian inventor Henri Coandă, was an unconventional sesquiplane aircraft powered by a ducted fan. Called the "turbopropulseur" by Coandă, its experimental engine consisted of a conventional piston engine driving a multi-bladed centrifugal blower which exhausted into a duct. The unusual aircraft attracted attention at the
Second International Aeronautical Exhibition in Paris in October 1910, being the only exhibit without a propeller, but the aircraft was not displayed afterwards and it fell from public awareness. Coandă used a similar turbo-propulseur to drive a snow sledge, but he did not develop it further for aircraft.